Imprint Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions
  or SUBSCRIBE

METHODS

 Microbiological Techniques
 
  2.1Sterilisation Methods
  2.1.1Dry Heat Sterilisation
  2.1.2Autoclaving
  2.1.3Intermittent Sterilisation (Tyndallisation)
  2.1.4Pasteurisation
  2.1.5Sterile Filtration
  2.2.0General Rules for Hygienic Sampling
  2.2.1Sampling of Wort and Beer from Tanks and Pipes
  2.2.1.1Sampling by Diaphragm Samplers
  2.2.1.2Sampling by Plug Type Sample Cocks
  2.2.1.3Sampling by Valves
  2.2.1.4On-Line Sampling by Membrane Filtration
  2.2.1.5Counterpressure Sampling
  2.2.1.6Sampling for Yeast Cell Counts
  2.2.2Sampling of Thick Yeast
  2.2.2.1Sampling of Thick Yeast from Open Vessels
  2.2.2.2Sampling of Thick Yeast from Closed Vessels
  2.2.2.3Sampling of Compressed Yeast
  2.2.3Sampling of Water
  2.2.3.1Sampling of Water from Taps
  2.2.3.2Sampling of Water from Wells
  2.2.3.3Sampling of Open Water Reservoirs
  2.2.3.4Neutralisation of Chlorinated Water
  2.2.4Sampling of Air and Gases
  2.2.4.1Sampling of Contaminants from Compressed Gases
  2.2.4.2Sampling of Contaminants from Atmospheric Air
  2.2.5Sampling for Cleaning Control
  2.2.5.1Sampling of Washed Bottles, New Bottles and Cans
  2.2.5.2Sampling from Filling Machine
  2.2.5.3Sampling from Crowner
  2.2.5.4Rinse Water from Kegs and Casks
  2.2.5.5Rinse Water from Tanks and Pipes, etc.
  2.2.5.6Swab Tests
  2.2.5.7Anaerobic Sample Handling
  2.3Laboratory Techniques
  2.3.1Dilution of Samples
  2.3.2Membrane Filtration
  2.3.2.1Laboratory Membrane Filtration Technique
  2.3.2.2Filter Membrane Growth Technique
  2.3.3Plating Techniques
  2.3.3.1Pour Plate Technique
  2.3.3.2Surface Spread Plating Technique
  2.3.3.3Isolation of Single Colonies
  2.3.4Incubation
  2.3.4.1General Rules for Incubation
  2.3.4.2Aerobic Incubation
  2.3.4.3Anaerobic, Catalysed Carbon Dioxide Incubation
  2.3.4.4Anaerobic, Carbon Dioxide Purge Incubation
  2.3.5Microscopy
  2.3.5.1Bright Field Microscopy
  2.3.5.2Phase Contrast Microscopy
  2.3.5.3Fluorescence Microscopy
  2.3.5.4Stereo Microscopy
  2.3.6Gram Differentiation of Bacteria
  2.3.6.1Gram Staining
  2.3.6.2KOH Method for Gram Differentiation
  2.3.7Catalase Test
  2.3.8ATP Bioluminescence Methods
  2.3.8.1ATP Analysis of Swab Samples
  2.3.8.2ATP Analysis of Rinse Water
  2.3.8.3ATP Analysis of Final Product
  2.3.9Characterisation of Contaminants
  2.3.9.1Gram Staining for Differentiation of Bacteria
  2.3.9.2KOH Method for Gram Differentiation
  2.3.9.3Catalase Test
  2.3.9.4Oxidase Test
  2.3.9.5Phenolic Off Flavour (POF)
  2.3.10Identification of microorganisms from single colonies by biochemical testing
  2.4Molecular Techniques
  2.4.1Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Techniques
  2.4.1.1Detection and Identification of Microorganisms from Turbid Liquid Samples or Cultured Colonies by Real-Time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
  2.4.1.2Detection and Identification of Microorganisms from Filterable Samples by Real-Time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
  2.4.1.3Identification of microorganisms from single colonies by RealTime PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
  2.5.2Bacteria Ribotyping